Challenges facing Pre-Primary Mobile School Teachers in the teaching of Arts Education:

A case study of the Kunene Region of Namibia


  • Willem Salinde Martin Ahtisaari Primary School
  • Ngepathimo Kadhila University of Namibia: Quality Assurance


Arts education, holistic child development, Kunene region, resource-challenged pre-primary schools, mobile schools, Namibia


Arts education has been acknowledged as a subject that enhances holistic child development as it helps learners to develop skills in creative problem-solving, motor, language, social, decision-making, risk-taking and creativity. This study aimed at investigating challenges that pre-primary teachers experience in teaching arts education in resource-challenged, mobile schools in Kunene region as well as ways in which to enhance the prevailing practice of teaching and learning. The study employed a qualitative approach, using a case study research design. A total number of six pre-primary, mobile government schools: Three from Epupa and three from the Opuwo circuit respectively were purposively selected for the study. Interviews and observation were used to collect the requisite data while a purposive sampling technique was used to select the interviewees. The study found that, despite the growing importance of arts education, there are numerous challenges that are continuing to impact adversely on the effective teaching of arts education in pre-primary mobile schools in the Kunene region. These challenges include inadequate teaching and learning resources, teacher and socio-economic factors as well as financial constraints. Based on the study’s findings, we propose formal training workshops for teachers on arts, support from the regional office and other stakeholders as well as the appointment of advisory teachers for non-promotional subjects such as arts education as possible ways in which to overcome the challenges and improve the teaching of arts education in resource-challenged environments.


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Author Biographies

Willem Salinde , Martin Ahtisaari Primary School

Salinde Willem holds a master’s degree in Curriculum and Assessment studies from the University of Namibia and Bachelor (honour’s) degree in Teaching and Learning from North West University in South Africa. She has been a pre-primary teacher for 9 years at Martin Ahtisaari Primary School in Wanaheda, Windhoek, Namibia where she teaches arts. Her research interests embrace quality development of curriculum in the arts as well as the educational foundation contents that will lead to effective teaching and learning throughout the education system. Email:

Ngepathimo Kadhila, University of Namibia: Quality Assurance

Ngepathimo Kadhila is the Director of Quality Assurance at the University of Namibia. He holds a PhD in Higher Education with a focus on Quality Assurance from the University of the Free State, South Africa; Master’s in Education; Bachelor in Education from the University of Namibia and; Postgraduate Diploma in Higher Education from Rhodes University in South Africa. His research interests include academic development, curriculum development in higher education, teaching and learning in higher education, and quality assurance. Email:




How to Cite

Salinde , W., & Kadhila, N. . (2021). Challenges facing Pre-Primary Mobile School Teachers in the teaching of Arts Education:: A case study of the Kunene Region of Namibia. Journal for Studies in Humanities and Social Sciences, 9(1&2), 81–97. Retrieved from