Oshiholekwa shokushanga onomola (4) mOshikwanyama she uya kombada

  • Edward T. Shikesho Ministry of Education, Arts and Culture
  • Eliaser Joseph University of Namibia
Keywords: orthography, number four (4), nasalisation, oshikwanyama 18 noun classes, dialects., omushangelo, onomola 4, ekwamayulupaleko, eengudu doityadina 18 dOshikwanyama, eenyapilaka.

Abstract

This paper emanates from a debate that took place in April 2020 at Onheleiwa between some UNAM students specialising in Oshikwanyama and one Oshikwanyama teacher working at one of the secondary schools in Omusati Region over the writing of number four (4) in Oshikwanyama.  The writers of this study have then been compelled to explore deeply on how number four (4) is and should be written in Oshikwanyama. This study’s literature review is that of the Bantu writing system of numbers as well as publications written in Oshikwanyama. This is a qualitative study controlled by text analysis and interviews as methods of gathering data. Interviews focusing on the members of the public, elders, teachers and some scholars on how this number is written in Oshikwanyama have been conducted. The Interviewees’ answers were not that satisfactory. The common answer that has been provided by the members of the public is that, there is no common way of writing this number. Everyone can write it the way he or she feels is appropriate, although there is no a concrete reason why it should be written that way, apart from “osho ashike hashi shangwa ngaho” = that is how it is written, the answer which has no bearing at all. According to the investigation the researchers of this study have made, number four in Oshikwanyama is inconsistently written. Some people write it as ne while others write it as nhee. After a deep investigation was done, it is revealed that number 4 is written differently based on different lexical items’ environments. It has been found that number 4 is written as “nhee” when a person is counting things that belong to Oshikwanyama noun class 4 and 10 (cf. Oshikwanyama 18 noun classes). This study recommends all future Oshikwanyama writers to write number 4 correctly as discussed thoroughly in this paper.

 

Ombapila ei oya etwa po sha dilila peemhata da ningilwe kOnheleiwa odo da li pokati kovahongwa vamwe vaUNAM tave lihongele Oshikwanyama nomuhongi umwe wOshikwanyama ha longo kuimwe yomeesekundofikola domOmusati shi na sha nokushanga onomola 4 mOshikwanyama.  Ovanyoli voshinyolwa eshi ova fininikwa opo va shitilile moule nhumbi onolomola ei mOshikwanyama hai shangwa noi na okushangwa. Omishangwa da longifwa moshinyolwa eshi ododo dOshibantu osho yo oinyolwa ya nyanyangidwa mOshikwanyama.  Oshinyolwa eshi osholudi loinyolwa oyo hai ya po unene mokulongifa oitya nomadiladilo omoule, kwa longifwa elesho loinyolwa osho yo omukalo womapulapulo, ongomikalo dokukonga ouyelele. Omapulapulo epekapeko okwa li a pulwa ovakwashiwana, ovakulunhu, ovahongi osho yo ovanongononi vomishangwa shi na sha neshango eli lonomola 4 mOshikwanyama.  Omanyamukulo ovakufimbinga va pulapulwa hao naana a li taa etifa eenghono. Enyamukulo la yandjwa kuvahapu vovakwashiwana ololo tali ti unene mOshikwanyama kamu na naana omukalo wokushanga onomola ei. Keshe umwe oha shange ashike omukalo ou e wete kutya u li mondjila, nonande kape na nande etomheno lofaafaa olo tali koleke enyamukulo laye, kakele kwaali tali ti “osho ashike hai shangwa ngaho”, enyamukulo olo lihe na omakanghameno nandenande. She likwatelela nee komashitililokonakono a ningwa kovapekapeki voshinyolwa eshi, onomola ei ohai shangwa sha yooloka. Vamwe ohave i shange ne omangha vamwe have i shange nhee. Konima nee yomashitililokonakono aa omoule, okwa monikwa kutya mboli onomola ei ohai shangwa sha yooloka, she likwatelela keyooloko olo hali hangwa moitya. Okwa monika nee kutya mboli onomola 4 ohai shangwa nhee ngeenge omunhu ta valula oinima i li mongudu onhi-4 osho yo onhi-10 yomeengudutyadina 18 dOshikwanyama. Oshinyolwa eshi otashi faneke ovashangi aveshe vOshikwanyama kohainga va shange onomola ei 4 mondjila, ngaashi naana sha popiwa nokukundafanwa nawanawa moshinyolwa eshi.

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Author Biographies

Edward T. Shikesho, Ministry of Education, Arts and Culture

Edward T Shikesho is a high school teacher in the Ministry of Education, Arts and Culture. He teaches English as a Second Language and Oshikwanyama as a First Language (Grade 8-12) at Nuuyoma Secondary School in Omusati Region, Namibia. He is also a part-time lecturer at NAMCOL’s Ongwediva Campus. He holds a Bachelor of Education (Honours) and a Master of Arts in African Languages (Oshiwambo studies) from the University of Namibia (UNAM) in 2015 and 2019 respectively. While he was an undergraduate student, he served as a writing tutor in the Writing Excellence Unit, at the UNAM’s Language Centre. His research interests include Oshikwanyama lexicography, linguistics, and Oshiwambo cultural practices. Email: eshikesho@yahoo.com

Eliaser Joseph, University of Namibia

Eliaser Joseph is a third year Education student specializing in Languages (English as a Second Language and Oshikwanyama as a First Language), currently studying at the University of Namibia.  His research interests include Linguistics, Oshiwambo cultural practices, and Oshikwanyama lexicography. Email: eliaserjosephn14@gmail.com

Published
2020-12-16
How to Cite
Shikesho, E. T., & Joseph, E. (2020). Oshiholekwa shokushanga onomola (4) mOshikwanyama she uya kombada. JULACE: Journal of the University of Namibia Language Centre, 5(1), 25-36. https://doi.org/10.32642/julace.v5i1.1482
Section
Articles