Inclusive Education Policies versus Practices

Exclusion of the Included

  • Cynthy Kaliinasho University of Namibia; Department of Educational Psychology and Inclusive Education
  • Sara Georgina Moshana University of Namibia
  • Penandino D. Kandjii University of Namibia
Keywords: inclusive education, diversity, social justice, photo voice, gallery walk


In Namibia, education is an undisputable right (Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, 1992). The University of Namibia prides itself in being an inclusive education institution and it adheres to national and international legal frameworks advocating inclusivity in higher education. The research that forms the basis of this article emanated from a project of students offering Inclusive Education 1 as a module in teacher education. The research capitalized on a qualitative design in which students took to all spaces (physical, infrastructural, cultural, socio-emotional etc.) of the main campus of the University of Namibia to identify barriers to inclusive education. They were allowed to provide either descriptions (using words) and/or pictures of the barriers they observed. The findings of the study revealed a myriad of exclusive infrastructure and peace threatening spaces. Some of the images that emerged from these activities show a clear disconnect between policies and reality through the students’ “discoveries” of barriers to inclusive education. Hence the recommendation that universities have a responsibility to ensure that equality and equity are achieved and are experienced not only by policy developers and service providers, but also by the beneficiaries of the policies.


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Author Biographies

Cynthy Kaliinasho, University of Namibia; Department of Educational Psychology and Inclusive Education
Cynthy Kaliinasho Haihambo has experience stretching over two decades in the higher education sector. She is a senior lecturer, researcher and the Head of the Department of Educational Psychology and Inclusive Education in the Faculty of Education, University of Namibia. Her research and publications areas cut across inclusive education, special needs education, indigenous knowledge systems, disability studies, comprehensive sexuality education as well as early childhood and gender studies. Email:
Sara Georgina Moshana, University of Namibia
Ms. Sara Georgina Moshana is an Assistant Coordinator at the Disability Unit, University of Namibia. Her key responsibilities entail, amongst others, the sensitization of disability-related issues, both internal and external, through advocacy and awareness campaigns; the coordination of students’ disability-related academic issues across Unam campuses as well as the transformation of learning material to suit the needs of students with disabilities. Ms. Moshana is well-grounded in understanding disability and social inclusion issues, inclusive education as well as public relations and sociology. Email:
Penandino D. Kandjii, University of Namibia
Ms. Penandino D. Kandjii is the Coordinator of the University of Namibia Disability Unit. She is a qualified teacher who spent most of her professional career facilitating teaching, learning and sport activities of children and youths with disabilities. Her current duties entail the arrangements of concessions for students with disabilities and special needs, as well as advocacy for their rights and needs. Email:
How to Cite
Kaliinasho, C., Moshana, S. G., & Kandjii, P. D. (2020). Inclusive Education Policies versus Practices: Exclusion of the Included. Journal for Studies in Humanities and Social Sciences, 8(2), 141-170.