Aims and scope of the journal

International Science and Technology Journal of Namibia (ISTJN) is a free open access, print and online journal of peer reviewed research and commentary in pure, applied and allied sciences and technology published by the Faculty of Science, University of Namibia. Aims and Scope The journal reflects the multidisciplinary nature of the field of science and technology. It addresses the needs of multiple, interlocking communities, including methodologists in mathematics, statistics and econometrics; as well as basic and applied scientists in biology, chemistry, physics, public health, medicine, education, mining, geology, computing, food, agriculture and engineering. The journal will strive to enhance the level of methodological rigour in pure and applied sciences and will contribute to the development of methodological standards in the fields of science and technology in Namibia. In pursuing its main objective, the journal will also provide a meeting ground for researchers from a number of traditional disciplines and will foster the development of scientific research and publication especially among younger practitioners.

Author guideline

Manuscript Submission

Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before; that it is not under consideration for publication anywhere else; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as by the responsible authorities at the institute where the work has been carried out. Authors should submit their manuscripts through this link: http://journals.unam.edu.na/index.php/ISTJN/about/submissions

Article structure

Essential title page information

Title: Must be short, not written in uppercase and to the point. It should inform readers of the overall study. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.

Name presentation: First Name, Surname and affiliations: Clearly indicate the initials and given or surname(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. Provide the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lowercase superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each author (including telephone and fax numbers if possible), indicate country name and the e-mail address of each author.

Corresponding author: Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of the peer review process and publication processes. The corresponding author must ensure that the e-mail address and contact details are kept up-to-date.

Present address. In case an author has moved from the affiliation address where the work was done, e, a 'Present address' may be indicated to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must still be retained as the main affiliation address.

Examples:

Obesity and nature’s pharmacy of putative anti-obesity agents

Kazhila C. Chinsembu*

University of Namibia, Faculty of Science, Department of Biological Sciences, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek, Namibia.
*Corresponding author: Tel.: +264 61 2063426; Fax: +264 61 2063791. Email address: kchinsembu@unam.na; kchinsembu@gmail.com (K.C. Chinsembu).
Ethnomedicinal plants used by traditional healers in the management of HIV/AIDS opportunistic diseases in Lusaka, Zambia
K.C. Chinsembu1*, M. Syakalima2,3, S.S. Semenya4
1University of Namibia, Faculty of Science, Department of Biological Sciences, P/Bag 13301, Windhoek, Namibia
2North-West University, School of Agricultural Sciences, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, Department of Animal Health, Mafikeng Campus, South Africa
3Prsent address: University of Zambia, School of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Disease Control, Great East Road Campus, P.O. Box 32379, Lusaka, Zambia
4University of Limpopo, Technology and Transfer office, Private Bag X 1106, Sovenga 0727, South Africa
*Corresponding author: Tel.: +264 61 2063426; Fax: +264 61 2063791. Email address: kchinsembu@unam.na; kchinsembu@gmail.com (K.C. Chinsembu).

Abstract
A brief and accurate synopsis is essential. The abstract is not numbered and should briefly describe the goal of the study, the main results and key conclusions.

Keywords: An abstract is followed by keywords (not more than eight).


Manuscript subdivisions and numbered sections

Partition your article into clearly delineated and numbered sections (1. Introduction, 2. Materials and methods, 3. Results, etc.). Sub-sections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any sub-section may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.


Introduction
Provide an adequate contextual background to the study and clearly state the objectives of the work without delving too much into a detailed literature review as though you are writing a thesis or dissertation. Only provide up-to-date and latest literature that relates to the current study and speaks to the results.

Material and methods
Provide scientific details of field and laboratory materials and techniques used in the study so that other workers can easily repeat the research. Do not just refer to standard techniques and protocols without giving key references. Relevant formulae and equations can be given in appropriate appendices at the end of the manuscript.

Results
Results should be unambiguous, to the point and succinct. Spurious results will be questioned and manuscripts rejected. Do not include material which fit into the Materials and Methods or the Discussion. Figures and Tables should be well-numbered and placed at the end of the manuscript (after the references). Relevant data or pictorial illustrations can also be given in appropriate appendices at the end of the manuscript.

Discussion
A comparative analysis of your results, the discussion should showcase the practical importance of your own results in addition to placing your findings within the context of previous scholarly works either by agreeing or disagreeing with results of previous studies. Do not repeat the results. The Discussion should not be peppered by unconfirmed, provisional, over-speculative and tentative statements. In certain cases, the Results and Discussion sections may be merged together.

Conclusion
In one short paragraph, state what the study achieved by providing overall and concise closing remarks that match the objectives of the study. Recommendations for future studies (in one sentence) are welcome.

Acknowledgements
Before the references, acknowledge all funding agencies and key institutions and workers that supported the study.


References:

Citation in text
Make sure that every reference cited in the text is also listed in the reference list (and vice versa). Abstracts should not have any references. Articles in press should be indicated as such and unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. Citation of a reference as 'in press' means that the paper has been accepted for publication (editor may request written proof).
Web references
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed on the Internet should be provided. Any further information which is known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Third-party websites should be avoided.

Reference style
Text: All citations in the text should refer to:
1. Single author: the author's surname (without initials) and the year of publication;
2. Two authors: both authors' surnames and the year of publication;
3. Three or more authors: first author's surname followed by "et al." and the year of publication.

Citations may be made directly (or parenthetically). Groups of references should be listed first alphabetically, then chronologically.
Examples: "as illustrated (Chinsembu, 1996a, 1996b, 1999; Chinsembu and Syakalima, 2015; Chinsembu et al., 2018). Okech et al. (2019) have recently shown that ....".

List: References should be arranged first alphabetically and then further sorted chronologically if necessary. More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters "a", "b", "c", etc., placed after the year of publication.

Examples:
Reference to a journal publication (journal names in full, not abbreviated):

Chinsembu, K.C., 2015. Plants as antimalarial agents in Sub-Saharan Africa. Acta Tropica 152, 32–48.

Chinsembu, K.C., Hedimbi, M., 2010. An ethnobotanical survey of plants used to manage HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Katima Mulilo, Caprivi region, Namibia. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 6, 25.

Chinsembu, K.C., 2016a. Ethnobotanical study of plants used in the management of HIV/ AIDS-related diseases in Livingstone, Southern Province, Zambia. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2016.

Chinsembu, K.C., 2016b. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal flora utilised by traditional healers in the management of sexually transmitted infections in Sesheke District, Western Province, Zambia. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia 26, 268–274.

Geyid, A., Abebe, D., Debella, A., Makonnen, Z., Aberra, F., Teka, F., ... Mariam, B.H., 2005. Screening of some medicinal plants of Ethiopia for their anti-microbial properties and chemical profiles. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 97, 421–427.

Madzinga, M., Kritzinger, Q., Lall, N., 2018. Medicinal plants used in the treatment of superficial skin infections: from traditional medicine to herbal soap formulations. Medicinal Plants for Holistic Health and Well-Being, pp. 255–275.

Green, A., 2017. President of Zambia declares HIV testing mandatory. The Lancet 390, 925.

Forestry Department, 2016. Ministry of Lands, Natural Resources and Environmental Protection, Integrated Land Use Assessment Phase II - Technical Paper 1, Classification of Forests in Zambia. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. Ministry of Foreign Affairs Finland, Lusaka, Zambia.

Hurinanthan, V., 2009. Immune modulatory effect of Dichrostachys cinerea, Carpobrotus dimidiatus, Capparis tomentosa and Leonotis leonurus. Doctoral dissertation. University of Pretoria, South Africa.

Central Statistical Office (CSO) [Zambia], Ministry of Health (MOH) [Zambia], ICF International, 2015. Zambia Demographic and Health Survey 2013–14. Central Statistical Office, Ministry of Health, and ICF International, Rockville, Maryland, USA.

Abu-Raddad, L.J., Magaret, A.S., Celum, C., Wald, A., Longini Jr., I.M., Self, S.G., Corey, L., 2008. Genital herpes has played a more important role than any other sexually transmitted infection in driving HIV prevalence in Africa. PLoS One 3, e2230.

Kanyanga, J., Majela-Sibanda, L., Hachigonta, S., 2012. Southern African agriculture and climate change: a comprehensive analysis-Zambia. www.africaportal.org/publications/ southern-african-agriculture-and-climate-change-a-comprehensive-analysiszambia/, Accessed date: 13 August 2018.

Magwede, K., vanWyk, B.E., vanWyk, A.E., 2018. An inventory of Vhavenḓa useful plants.
South African Journal of Botany. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2017.12.013.

Van der Geer, J., Hanraads, J.A.J., Lupton, R.A., 2000. The art of writing a scientific article. Journal of Science Communication 163, 51–59.

Reference to a book:

Oliver Jr., W., Black, O.S., 2019. The Elements of Algebra, third ed. Macmillan, Lusaka, Zambia.

Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
Holmes, H.E., Johns, A.F., 2018. Anti-HIV medicinal plants, in: Chinsembu, K.C., Nkunika, P.O.Y. (Eds.), Medicinal Plants of Southern Africa. Nature Publishing Inc., New York USA, pp. 401–459.

Appendices
If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.

Abbreviations
Write these in full and place abbreviations in brackets and then use abbreviations later on.